Magganga – the Path to Liberation
Practice in Daily Life
The Noble Eightfold Path to liberation, or magganga in Pali, is something that should be
practised in daily life. The word magganga is a combination of two words; magga meaning a path
(here it denotes a path leading to nibbana or liberation from suffering) and anga meaning
essential or principal components. In accordance with the dhamma or Buddha’s teaching, there
are eight components, which in combination form a path that leads to nibbana or the total
cessation of suffering.
The dhamma and mundane life
There is a misconception harboured by some that the path to nibbana can only be followed
or practised in isolation either in a forest meditating at the foot of a tree, in a cave or a specified
meditation centre. This is, of course, impractical and difficult for the majority now-a-days because
of family and personal commitments. Having been born into this life, our first consideration has to
be to feed, clothe and house ourselves and our families and this is only natural for all living
creatures. It would be totally wrong to have the attitude that “Life is not important. Dhamma is only
important.” It would be totally illogical as well because the dhamma is something that you have to
find in your life or daily living. You cannot find the dhamma without systematically observing,
understanding and modifying your own life, life-style and attitude to life. There is a saying that
“Dhamma can be found in your body”. Life or living and the dhamma are inseparably intertwined
and if you lose sight of the dhamma through over-indulgence in the sensual pleasures of life, you
will find in the end that you have wasted your life.
There is a Burmese saying, “Although the let-pan (silk cotton tree, Bombax heptaphyllum)
and nyaung (banyan tree, Ficus bengalensis) trees may grow tall and big, and bear leaves and fruit
in abundance, both are, in the end, useless as wood except for the purpose of burning”. Likewise,
when you grow old with a successful family and wealth, unless you have learnt and practised the
dhamma, your life-time achievements would have been in vain. So we all need to try and be
successful both in mundane matters as well as in the practice of the dhamma, so that we become
valuable members of society, like the kyun (teak) or pyinkadoe (Burmese iron wood, Xylia
xylocarpa) which will always be useful to society.
The interdependence of life and the dhamma
In addition, we should consider ourselves fortunate; firstly, to have been born in the human
world. To be born at a time while the Buddha’s teachings or Buddhist sasana is extant comes
second. We should not feel despondent that due to pressures and mundane obligations of life, we
are unable to pursue the path to nibbana. We should bear in mind that none of the buddhas ever
taught a philosophy that was not based on life itself. Mundane life and the dhamma are totally
inseparable and interdependent. The dhamma arises out of and is sustained by life itself, and life
is supplemented, supported and ideally should be guided by the dhamma. This article aims to
demonstrate that the practice of the dhamma is something that should take place in daily life.
Practising dhamma in daily life
This magganga path, which always heads toward nibbana or liberation, should be
followed in our daily activities, no matter what we are doing; while we carry on with our daily
routines, having conversations, attending to business, cooking, cleaning, or even when answering
the call of nature. So the path that leads to nibbana actually starts from our daily life and this path
is very simply the eight-fold path of magganga. All practicing Buddhists know that whatever we do,
whether practising dana (generosity), sila (morality) or bhavana (meditation), the ultimate goal is
nibbana. This article is written with the intention that that those practising Buddhists will be able to
discern for themselves the progress they have made, and how far they still are from their goal of
The Noble Eightfold Path to liberation - magganga
The eight magganga can be grouped into 3 categories; sila, samadhi (concentration) and
panna (wisdom). The sila group is comprised of 1) samma vaca (right speech), 2) samma
kammanta (right actions) and 3) samma ajiva (right livelihood); the samadhi group of 4) samma
sati (right awareness), 5) samma samadhi (right concentration) and 6) samma vayama (right
effort), and the panna group of 7) samma ditthi (right understanding) and 8) samma sankappa
Although we usually start theological sermons by talking about panna or wisdom, in
practice though, we have to start from sila or the development of morality. This is because the
development of wisdom denotes or follows from the full attainment of morality and to reach this
level of attainment, regular practice and time are required.
The sila magganga or the sila group
The sila group is what brings together daily life and the dhamma, a proper understanding
of life and nature; what is good or bad, and right or wrong. In other words, the mundane aspect
places emphasis on what an individual feels good or bad about, whereas the dhamma aspect
emphasises on whether it is right or wrong.
The first component of this group is samma vaca (right speech) and this has to meet both
the criteria of being good as viewed from the mundane aspect as well as being right from the
dhamma aspect. Just being good or just being right is not samma vaca. This begs the question of
how we decide what is good or bad, right or wrong. Simply, we just ask ourselves what we like or
dislike. It is natural that we like good things and want good things for ourselves. So when it comes
to speech, saying things that we ourselves would like to hear being said to us or can accept is
regarded as good from the mundane aspect. The dhamma aspect deals with what is right or
wrong and regarding this, we should say things that show compassion and consideration for
others, being truthful, avoiding lies, avoiding speech or gossip that will break up the friendship of
others, avoiding flattery to gain approval, and saying things politely and calmly so that it is soothing
to the listener. Living in this world, we need to learn to practise these two things together; 1) living
a mundane life and being good, and 2) understanding the dhamma and being right. We should not
lose sight of both aspects.
The second component is samma kammanta (right actions) consisting of physical actions
that are both good as well as right. This involves doing things that you yourself like and can accept
which meets the criteria of being mundanely good. From the dhamma aspect, right activity means
avoiding killing or taking another’s life, destroying or stealing another person’s household and
property, and committing sexual misdemeanours.
The third component, samma ajiva (right livelihood) consists of a good and righteous
livelihood, or means of earning a living. From the mundane aspect any business transaction that is
mutually acceptable can be regarded as good. The Buddha stated that we need to nourish our
physical bodies and in order to do so we need to earn a living in a righteous manner which means
that it has to be compassionate, mutually acceptable (this includes a reasonable profit margin) and
also meets the first two criteria of samma vaca and samma kammanta. Samma ajiva excludes
business related to the trade in arms and ammunition, human trafficking, hunting, fishing, buying
and selling of animals, meat and fish, and dealing with alcoholic drinks, narcotics and toxic or
The Buddha knows that all humans have to earn a living and if the means of the livelihood
meet the two mundane and dhamma criteria of being good and right, He has preached that that
particular type of livelihood can lead to nibbana. When we are working or running a business, we
have to talk and perform things physically. We cannot avoid this. So long as we function within the
bounds of samma vaca and samma kammanta, what we are doing is samma ajiva.
The kamma path
The above three practices are based on social ethics and morals, and therefore, known as
the sila magganga or the sila group. As they also distinguish between good and bad individuals or
draw a distinction between good and bad as well as right and wrong, they have an effect on one’s
kamma (the inescapable consequences of one’s mental, verbal and physical actions) and are,
therefore, also known as the kamma path. All humans wish for good fortune or a good kamma that
leads to good health and wealth and therefore some may do strange things such as, allow monks
to hit them on the head with their staves or spit at them, with the misguided belief that this will bring
good kamma to them.
What is being taught in this article is the Buddha’s advice on how to acquire good kamma.
The advice states that if you wish your speech to bring you good kamma or fortune, make sure
that what is emitted from your mouth is samma vaca or right speech. If you want your physical
actions to bring you good kamma, make sure that whatever you do is samma kammanta and if
you want to be successful with what you are doing for a living, make sure that your work meets the
criteria for samma ajiva. Apart from these three methods, there is no other way to improve your
kamma. In fact, all other means or methods cannot bring you good kamma and this is why this
group is known as the kamma path.
Meaning of sila
The Pali word sila means practice. When Buddhists pay homage and respect to the
Buddha in their shrine-room daily, they are practising. They are practising because they want to
develop a habit which they have not yet acquired. What sort of habit? The habit of always
producing samma vaca (right speech), samma kammanta (right actions) and samma ajiva (right
livelihood). Once this becomes a habit, the qualities of sila or moral practice become strong and
pure. As these three components have to be practised to become habitual in nature, they are
known as the sila magganga or the sila group or path.
Avoid bad and do good
Within this practice, there are just two responsibilities you have to take on board; viz. “Avoid
the bad and do what is good.” So, simply you have to avoid saying and doing bad things and try to
say and do good things. If you can follow this then your practice of sila will be secure; you will not
be committing any sins, and this habit will eradicate vitakkama kilesa (the mental factor that
directs one’s thoughts towards indulging in defilements; see explanation below) that leads to bad
consequential effects in future lives. The latter process of doing what is good, will prevent the
development of conflict in the outside world due to erroneous communication and activities. In life,
people are judged from the way they speak and what they do. Once a person is secure in sila
practice, he will be free from wrongful speech, both his actions and livelihood will be faultless, and
he will be seen as a person imbued with the dhamma.
Whatever we strive to do, we have to start from the bottom and gradually work our way up.
To have a full glass, we have to start by putting things in it first. There is a Burmese saying that if
you only have a penny you should not touch the fish’s head. What is meant here is that one should
not think that one can attain nibbana by just meditation when one has not even habituated to the
practice of sila. One needs to develop oneself gradually. One does not need to observe total noble
silence right from the start, but first practice on how to speak mindfully, avoiding bad and wrong
speech as described earlier on. Neither does one need to sit motionless for hours doing nothing.
One can and should continue to do things and work, but being mindful of avoiding the bad and
wrong and doing what is good and right. When sila becomes a habit and second nature to you,
then the immediate benefit that you will gain is the peace and happiness of leading a sin-free life
known in Pali as anavijjasukha.
The fourth component of the Noble Eightfold Path is samma sati, meaning right awareness
or mindfulness. The person who is practising this is combining his mind or consciousness with
attention on each and every sense object that he is occupied and working with.
The fifth, samma samadhi, is right concentration. The person practising this puts effort into
keeping his attention solely on one sense object that he is occupied and working with. This practice
can be on two levels; 1) arammana upanijjhana - concentrating on the object to discern or
differentiate clearly the sensory or physical qualities, e.g. between good and bad sensations or
black and white, etc., and 2) lakkhana upanijjhana – concentrating on the three characteristics of
anicca (impermanence) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self or not being under one’s
control). Of these two, when one is practising samatha meditation or sila sikkha (training in
morality) and samadhi sikkha (training in concentrating ability), one practises at the first level of
arammana upanijjhana, only focussing on the sammuti (conventional) or pannatti (virtual truths
with conventionally designated names, notions, ideas, etc.) or kasina (a form of samatha
meditation) objects, such as good or bad sensations, man or woman, material property, etc. and
one does not practise at the level of lakkhana upanijjhana which is practised only when one does
vipassana or panna sikkha (wisdom training), a higher level training or practice that focuses on
paramattha (ultimate truths).
The sixth, right effort is applied in three ways; 1) in avoiding the bad, 2) in embracing the
good and 3) when contemplating on paramattha objects, to know clearly the three characteristics
of mind and matter or lakkhana, i.e. anicca, dukkha and anatta.
Samma sati (right awareness), samma samadhi (right concentration) and samma
vayama (right effort) are known as the samadhi magganga or sikkha, because they are involved
in the training and development of a calm and focussed mind, which leads to the development of
jhana (a totally absorbed or ecstatic state) when one does samatha meditation. Ledi Sayadaw has
also described this as the jhanic path or jhana magganga in his treatise on the paramattha. The
samadhi magganga or sikkha (training) is essential in keeping our minds pure and free from
mental defilements and thus, eradicates pariyutthana kilesa. (See explanation below)
It is important to note that the three components of samadhi magganga are the foundation
of the path to liberation as they play a vital role in every aspect of the dhamma practice and the
leader of these three components is sati. These three components, by themselves, can be used to
develop indriya savara (excellent controlling faculties or morally principled and controlled
behaviour) or practise samatha meditation. They are also used to develop sila and panna sikkha.
The development of indriya savara can lead to avoidance of sensual pleasures and produce a
mind of complete calmness and tranquillity known as adhi citta sukha.
The last panna group consists of samma ditthi (right understanding) and samma
sankappa (right thinking).
The seventh, samma ditthi or right understanding, in turn, contains three aspects;
1) kammassakata samma ditthi, the knowledge or wisdom that there is a cause that leads to an
effect for everything, i.e. good deeds will lead to good effects and bad deeds to bad effects. This
wisdom is applied in the training of sila and kamma, as already mentioned above;
2) vipassana samma ditthi, the wisdom that all conditioned things such as mind and matter are
subject to the natural law of arising and perishing, and
3) magga phala samma ditthi, the knowledge of nibbana which is the complete liberation from
samsara or the rounds of rebirths.
The last and eighth is samma sankappa or right thinking. Samma sankappa directs the
mind towards or focuses the mind on an object, and in the process of seeing, hearing, smelling,
tasting, feeling or thinking, understanding that they are all transient and impermanent in nature.
Although in lay terms we say that samma sankappa is making you think in the right way, when
one practises vipassana one does not purposely think of visualising nibbana, but just provides the
right conditions for one’s mind to experience the stage of magga wisdom as it develops.
Samma ditthi and samma sankappa are collectively called panna magganga because
they are involved in the acquisition of a clear and discriminative understanding of the dhamma. It
is with this wisdom that one purifies one’s mind and completely eradicates the anusaya kilesa or
internal defilements that lie latent in one. It is also known as the path of wisdom.
During the initial practise of vipassana , one utilises the three components of samadhi
magganga and the two components of panna magganga. Only five components are being
developed. However, when one approaches the stage of magga phala samma ditthi, the three
habituated components of sila magganga also come into play automatically as at this stage,
external temptations to indulge in defilements need to be curbed. This is when the anusaya kilesa
are being eradicated from the roots. So now, all the eight components of the noble eight-fold path
come into play. And it is for this reason that the panna magganga is also regarded as the final
path that completes the development of enlightenment. When this stage is attained, the benefit that
one gains is total peace and tranquillity of the mind called santi sukha.
Unless the laws of nature are shown in combination with its practical aspects, no amount of
explanation will make it easily understandable. Once it is applied practically, it becomes less
complicated. So let us try putting it into practice.
Putting theory into practice
Firstly remember that the three components of samadhi magganga are required for the
development of understanding of the laws of nature or dhamma. The reason is because these
three components are absolutely essential in the development of sila and panna magganga. Next
remember that in the training of sila sikkha there are just two important obligations, i.e. avoiding
bad and doing good.
When it comes to talking or having a conversation, what we need to train ourselves is to
develop samma vaca or right speech as follows;
1) as the first step in the process of speech, there is the desire to say something. When this
appears, use samma sati to be aware that you are about to say something, consider
whether the words that you are about to say are good or not, truthful or not, and whether
they would be acceptable to you if someone should say these words to you; and whether
they are in line with the dhamma, regarding its veracity
2) as the second step, use samma samadhi to concentrate on what has been made aware by
samma sati in the previous step to understand or know it clearly
3) as the last step, use samma vayama and depending on whether you are thinking of saying
something bad or good, right or wrong, you direct your effort towards avoiding saying bad
or wrong things and redirect your effort towards saying good and right things. Thus training
yourself in samma vaca
So when you develop samma vaca you are working with four components, viz. samma
sati, samma samadhi, samma vayama and samma vaca. With repeated practise and training,
you will find that the three components of sati, samadhi and vayama (awareness, concentration
and effort) become second nature to you, and whatever you say will be samma vaca. It is only
when you reach this stage of being in the habit of using right speech that you can regard yourself
as having fully acquired the quality of sila with regard to speech (vaci kamma sila). Once you
reach this stage, you have developed four out of the eight components of the Noble Eightfold Path,
so you may regard yourself as halfway on the road to nibbana. So you can practise the dhamma
even while you are talking in daily life or while working. It goes without saying that samma vaca is
something to be practised in your daily mundane life.
The practice of samma kammanta is similar to samma vaca.
1) The first step is to be aware of the development of the desire to do something; samma sati
2) The second is to concentrate on what you are thinking of doing and to understand it well;
3) The third step is to direct your effort towards doing what is good and right, samma vayama.
Thus you train yourself in samma kammanta or right action.
When you have developed the habit of samma kammanta you have fully acquired the
quality of sila with regard to actions (kaya kamma sila). By now you have developed five out of
the eight components of the Noble Eightfold Path.
The practice of right livelihood follows on the same lines as the two above.
1) The first step is awareness of the development of the desire to earn a living; samma sati
2) The second is to concentrate on what you are thinking of doing and to understand it well;
3) The third step is directing your effort towards doing and saying what is good and right while
earning a living, samma vayama. Thus you train yourself in samma ajiva or right livelihood.
When you have developed the habit of samma ajiva you have fully acquired the quality of
sila with regard to both speech and actions (kaya kamma sila). By now you have developed six
out of the eight components of the Noble Eightfold Path.
The development of the above sila sikkha or magganga is carried out within the
environment where you live and work; in your home, your village or town. For this reason, the Yaw
Tipitaka Sayadawgyi gave a sermon on it titled “Practice of the Path to Enlightenment within the
Home” This practice is based on developing the three components of
samadhi magganga and in doing so strengthening and fulfilling the three components of sila
magganga. This, in effect, leads to the acquisition of a total of six components out of the eight
present in the Noble Eightfold Path leading to nibbana or enlightenment. In rural Upper Burma
there is even a saying that when you reach this stage of dhamma development, you can assume
that you have travelled the distance of three quarters of a Kyat. This is very
important because you need to know that you first need to accumulate this three quarters of a Kyat
by practising within your home and mundane life, before abandoning it for an ascetic life, practising
the dhamma under a tree in the forest, in a cave, in a monastery, or within your own home in a
specified room in solitude, to develop the remaining two components of the Nobel Eightfold Path,
viz. samma ditthi (right understanding) and samma sankappa (right thinking), thus accumulating
the remaining quarter of a Kyat, and eventually reaching the goal of envisaging nibbana.
Arammana and lakkhana upanijjhana
Before going on to the final group of panna sikkha, composed of samma ditthi (right
understanding) and samma sankappa (right thinking), there are a few important points to note
regarding sila sikkha. Sila sikkha is a training or practice that is done within one’s home and
one’s mundane environment, dealing with and talking about sammuti/pannatti sacca
(conventional truths). One is not dealing with paramattha sacca (absolute or ultimate truths). In
short, when sila sikkha is being practised in the mundane world, the foci of sati (awareness),
samadhi (concentration) and viriya (effort) are on conventional objects or sammuti/pannatti
sacca. Even when one is practising pure samadhi, as in samatha meditation or asubha
meditation, the meditative objects or kasina objects are all sammuti/pannatti sacca. The next
thing to remember is that the level of undivided concentration and understanding solely on the
conventional aspects of the meditative object, e.g. black or white, square or round, good or bad, is
called arammana upanijjhana, whereas the concentration and understanding on
the ultimate or paramattha aspects of mind and matter or namarupa, viz. the three characteristics
of anicca, dukkha and anatta, is called lakkhana upanijjhana. In summary,
when one is developing or training in sila and samadhi sikkha, one meditates at the level of
arammana upanijjhana and not lakkhana upanijjhana.
It is only when one practises to develop panna sikkha or vipassana wisdom that one
starts from the level of arammana upanijjhana, i.e. concentrating on the physical and mental
aspects of the body and mind, and then progresses on to the higher level of lakkhana
upanijjhana, where one concentrates on the three characteristics of anicca, dukkha and anatta,
In short, to develop panna sikkha or vipassana wisdom, one needs to meditate on the body and
mind on two levels; the pannatti and paramattha levels.
Practice on development of vipassana wisdom
Let us now try and practise the development of vipassana wisdom using whatever
understanding we have gained. Using the dictum “Search for dhamma and find it in your body”
let us use our bodies as our meditation object, but do not concentrate on the
sammuti/pannatti sensations that arise, but focus on the paramattha elements of heat (tejo) that
you feel at the nostrils or the expanding and deflating sensations (vayo) in your tummy as the air is
inhaled and exhaled.
What we are trying to do here is to understand the first component of panna magganga,
which is samma ditthi (right understanding). Using samma sati, make yourself aware of the
paramattha elements arising all over your body; feelings of heat, cold, hardness, softness, the air
movements at the nostril, the rising or expansion of the tummy when air is inhaled and the falling
as it is exhaled, etc. Try and be aware of the subtle paramattha elements that exist which you may
not have taken notice of before. Next use samma samadhi and samma vayama to direct your
attention and concentrate fully on these sensations and know them clearly. Whilst doing this, you
will come to fully realise that the three characteristics of of anicca (impermanence), dukkha
(unsatisfactoriness or suffering) and anatta (non-self or lack of control) are constantly at work on
both our minds and bodies. In this way your mind becomes clearer. With this meditative or
contemplative practise, you begin to understand the law of nature that all things that arise will fall
away or decay in time. Once this understanding becomes strongly entrenched in your mind, then
you have begun to develop samma ditthi (right understanding). You may note that in this process
also four components of the Noble Eightfold Path are being used. By now, you have developed
seven out of the eight components.
The way to develop samma sankappa (right thinking) is to use samma sati, making
yourself aware of the paramattha elements arising over your body and then using samma
samadhi and samma vayama to direct your attention and concentrate fully on these sensations
and understand them clearly. Once you see clearly in your mind that the body is the physical object
producing the sensations and your mind is making you aware of these sensations, and both body
and mind are under the influence of the three lakkhana or characteristics of constantly being in
flux or undergoing change (anicca), totally beyond your control (anatta) and hence, absolutely
unsatisfactory or causing distress (dukkha), your mind becomes more inclined towards seeing
everything as impermanent (anicca). This is the beginning of samma sankappa. In this process
also you will notice that four components of the Noble Eightfold Path are being used. By now, you
have developed all eight of the eight components of the Noble Eightfold Path.
Although the whole process has been dissected into various steps and sequences, in
actual fact, the development of the various components can occur together in various combinations
and may occur at the same time as well as disappear at the same time. This is because there are
over thirty mental factors or cetasikas at work and although only one thought unit can be present
at any one time, the rate at which they form and disappear are indescribably fast that only the
significant cetasikas get identified, for example, as samma ditthi or samma sankappa. One must
not lose sight of the fact that many mental factors are involved. An analogy here is when we cook
chicken curry we use, pieces of chicken, onions, salt, cooking oil, etc. in various proportions and
eventually call it chicken curry purely because the chicken is the main ingredient in it.
The Buddha stated that whatever meditation object you use, be it a physical or mental
object, when we use the vipassana meditation technique over and over again, you will observe
and discover that all these conditioned objects are subject to the law of sankhara or cycles of
existence, in constant flux or change and not being the same at any moment in time. And because
they are impermanent, you will reach the conclusion that they are simply useless. This is when you
gain the wisdom of anicca. In addition, you will also realise that nothing that is subject to the law of
sankhara is worth possessing or being satisfied with; the attainment of the wisdom of dukkha.
This then leads to the third realisation that all things subject to the law of sankhara will never be
under your control; the attainment of the wisdom of anatta. Progressing on from this, with repeated
meditation on these objects, you will reach the stage when this realisation of anicca, dukkha and
anatta becomes an unshakable belief or conviction. When you reach that stage, all feelings of love
and desire for the body that one possesses, as well as the feelings of dislike and hate towards it,
will disappear, and this is described as nibbida ñãna or feeling fed up or disgusted with the body.
This realisation or wisdom is called sankharupekkha ñãna which means having an
equanimous mind or attitude towards the cycles of change or existences. You need to note here
that the word upekkha is used to convey the meaning of being bereft of feelings of either like or
dislike, love or hatred, which results from understanding the true meaning of life.
When this wisdom is attained, you reach the stage where you are now able to let go of all
desires and attachment to the five aggregates, called viragavimuccati (freedom from passion or
emancipation). The freedom or emancipation that you achieve is from the shackles and bondage of
sankhara. In another sense, this freedom is from the present cycle of life existences and into a
realm beyond or lokuttara. This realm is free from desires, passion, dislike, anger, hatred, and
therefore, is nibbana.
Completing the development of the Noble Eightfold Path
During the practice of vipassana meditation to develop panna magganga (wisdom), there
are the three components of samadhi magganga and the two of panna magganga, making a
total of five components at work. With the progress in your meditation, and once you attain a
complete understanding of or the vision of nibbana as freedom from the impermanent nature of
things, this understanding or knowledge is called magga citta (r*fpdwf) and this is almost
immediately followed by the appearance of the phala citta (zdkvfpdwf). The latter citta or mind
provides the vision of nibbana to the practitioner. At the stage of magga citta all the verbal and
physical defilements associated with the external world are completely eradicated and therefore,
the three components of sila magganga become fully established as second nature, hence no
longer needing to be practised or trained. This is the stage when all the eight components of the
Noble Eightfold Path become complete and fully developed.
Vimmutirasa and santi sukha
The meditator who has reached the ultimate stage on nibbana or the emancipation from
the impermanent nature of sankhara, is said to be savouring vimmutirasa (0drkwWd&o) or the
essence of emancipation and santi sukha (oEd Wokc) or complete tranquillity being free from all the
vicissitudes and tribulations of life.
May you be able to practise and fulfil the Noble Eightfold Path in your daily life.
Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu
Translation by Dr Kyaw Thinn, Birmingham, U.K., of an article in Burmese written by
Ashin Adiccalankara, the Sayadaw of Shwekyin Dhammadhipati Vihara, London.
28 April 2014